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Branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) assist the inhibition of protein breakdown and enhance protein synthesis.
Leucine is the main activator of the muscle signalling protein known as mTOR which is responsible for the initiation of muscle recovery and growth. Sufficient leucine concentrations are essential, hence there are 4g in this formula.
Taurine exhibits a protective effect against oxidation induced by cellular stress of exercise and behaves as a free radical scavenger in various cells and muscle tissue.
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body, it is necessary for efficient muscle function, protein synthesis and the immune system.
Caffeine is important for maintaining concentration, alertness and reducing the sensation of fatigue.
The electrolytes that are lost in highest concentrations in sweat include sodium and chloride, while electrolytes lost in lower concentrations include potassium, magnesium and calcium. Sodium is the most important electrolyte for maintaining fluid homeostasis during and following exposure to heat and exercise.
Leucine rich (4:1:1) BCAA ratio to support muscle building and aid muscle recovery
Glutamine to assist working muscle efficiency
Taurine to help reduce muscle oxidative stress
Electrolytes to replace the salts lost during exercise.
Caffeine for a sense of focus, alertness
Sensate for a refreshing cooling effect
Leucine is sometimes referred to as the 'main BCAA because it is the main activator of the signalling protein known as mTOR, which then induces muscle protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, the other two BCAAs may also activate mTOR, but are much weaker than leucine in doing so. Sufficient leucine concentrations are essential for the initiation of muscle recovery and growth (Li et al 2011). Wilkinson et al (2013) gave healthy young men (mean age 21) who were recreationally active but not involved in a formal training programme 3.42 g of Leucine. Muscle protein synthesis in myofibrillar proteins increased ?110% from base line values over the 2.5 h post-feeding period acting as a trigger to synthesize new muscle proteins. Moberg et al (2014) gave an essential amino acid supplement to a group of women in their 20s with or without an average of 2.7g of leucine (45 mg.kg ?1 body weight) which was consumed during resistance exercise. The group that did not consume the leucine showed a significantly lower incorporation of amino acids into new proteins than the leucine addition group. This
demonstrates the important role that leucine plays in stimulating skeletal muscle protein metabolism (anabolic processes) in human muscle following exercise.
Caffeine ingestion leads to dose dependent increased energetic arousal that improves concentration and helps to focus mainly by eliminating distractors (Nehlig 2010). There have been numerous positive reports the improvements of caffeine on mood, mental alertness, decreased tiredness, and energetic arousal (Sokmen et al 2008).
While some very large doses have been used in much of the ergogenic based research, surprisingly small doses can assist focus and concentration. Smith et al (1999) reported that those consuming only 40mg of caffeine displayed greater alertness at the end of the test session, as well as improved performance on choice reaction time tasks involving focused attention and categoric search. Brice & Smith (2002) found that caffeine led to increased alertness and improved performance on simple and choice reactive tasks, a cognitive vigilance task, a task
requiring sustained response and a dual task involving tracking and target detection. These sort of improvements would be very important to an individual.
Electrolytes are positively or negatively charged ions that conduct electrical activity. They must be present in proper concentrations to maintain fluid balance, muscle contraction and neural activity. The electrolytes that are lost in highest concentrations in sweat include sodium and chloride, while those electrolytes lost in lower concentrations include potassium, magnesium and calcium (see Maughan 1998).
Sodium is the principal cation of the extracellular fluid and functions as the osmotic determinant in regulating extracellular fluid. Sodium is also an important determinant of the membrane potential of cells and the active transport of molecules across cell membranes. Chloride is also important in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance (Food and Nutrition Board 2004).
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